GHOST Project

Toward Functional ghost proteins





  •  Garcia-del Rio, D. F., Cardon, T., Eyckerman, S., Fournier, I., Bonnefond, A., Gevaert, K., & Salzet, M. (2023). Employing non-targeted interactomics approach and subcellular fractionation to increase our understanding of the ghost proteome. iScience, 105943.
  • Cardon, T., Fournier, I., & Salzet, M. (2021). Unveiling a ghost proteome in the glioblastoma non-coding RNAs. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology9, 703583.
  • Cardon, T., Fournier, I., & Salzet, M. (2021). Shedding light on the ghost proteome. Trends in Biochemical Sciences46(3), 239-250.
  • Cardon, T., Fournier, I., & Salzet, M. (2020). SARS-Cov-2 Interactome with Human Ghost Proteome: A Neglected World Encompassing a Wealth of Biological Data. Microorganisms8(12), 2036.
  • Cardon, T., Ozcan, B., Aboulouard, S., Kobeissy, F., Duhamel, M., Rodet, F., ... & Salzet, M. (2020). Epigenetic Studies Revealed a Ghost Proteome in PC1/3 KD Macrophages under Antitumoral Resistance Induced by IL-10. ACS omega5(43), 27774-27782.
  • Cardon, T., Franck, J., Coyaud, E., Laurent, E. M., Damato, M., Maffia, M., ... & Salzet, M. (2020). Alternative proteins are functional regulators in cell reprogramming by PKA activation. Nucleic Acids Research48(14), 7864-7882.
  • Murgoci, A. N., Cardon, T., Aboulouard, S., Duhamel, M., Fournier, I., Cizkova, D., & Salzet, M. (2020). Reference and ghost proteins identification in rat C6 glioma extracellular vesicles. Iscience23(5), 101045.
  • Cardon, T., Salzet, M., Franck, J., & Fournier, I. (2019). Nuclei of HeLa cells interactomes unravel a network of ghost proteins involved in proteins translation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects1863(10), 1458-1470.
  • Cardon, T., Hervé, F., Delcourt, V., Roucou, X., Salzet, M., Franck, J., & Fournier, I. (2019). Optimized sample preparation workflow for improved identification of ghost proteins. Analytical chemistry92(1), 1122-1129.
  • Brunet, M. A., Brunelle, M., Lucier, J. F., Delcourt, V., Levesque, M., Grenier, F., ... & Roucou, X. (2019). OpenProt: a more comprehensive guide to explore eukaryotic coding potential and proteomes. Nucleic acids research47(D1), D403-D410.
  • Delcourt, V., Staskevicius, A., Salzet, M., Fournier, I., & Roucou, X. (2018). Small proteins encoded by unannotated ORFs are rising stars of the proteome, confirming shortcomings in genome annotations and current vision of an mRNA. Proteomics18(10), 1700058.
  • Delcourt, V., Brunelle, M., Roy, A. V., Jacques, J. F., Salzet, M., Fournier, I., & Roucou, X. (2018). The protein coded by a short open reading frame, not by the annotated coding sequence, is the main gene product of the dual-coding gene MIEF1. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics17(12), 2402-2411.
  • Delcourt, V., Franck, J., Leblanc, E., Narducci, F., Robin, Y. M., Gimeno, J. P., ... & Fournier, I. (2017). Combined mass spectrometry imaging and top-down microproteomics reveals evidence of a hidden proteome in ovarian cancer. EBioMedicine21, 55-64.

BAT-MASS new kit for multiplexing and quantifying transcriptome, proteome, glycome, metabolome by targeting MALD-MSI

Support : SATT Nord
: Nucleosyn


To date, many strategies can be used as tools for clinical diagnosis and these can be classified according to their mode of applications. The most popular ones are ELISA, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immuno PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), to name some. Recently, the use of MS has emerged as a powerful technique for diagnosis. Indeed, the indirect detection of biomarkers has been developed such as the Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) and the imaging mass cytometry which was recently described as histology topography cytometry analysis toolbox (histoCAT). All these strategies present the ability to perform molecular images of proteins in a multiplexed mode. Nevertheless, these techniques are based from what we have previously developed with the Tag-mass technology in targeted MALDI MSI and in ELISA-based assay, named ISA-MS. This technology has been patented in 2005 and worldwide delivery. Even if all the mentioned methods are able to localize biomolecules in the multiplexed mode, the development of a universal tool to detect both nucleic acids and proteins remains challenging and has to be elucidated. BAT-Mass project aims to synthesize a nucleotide-linked kit, MS-detectable Tag allowing the in situ or in vitro detection and quantify of poteome, glycome, transcriptome, proteome as well as drugs.


  • Lemaire R, Stauber J, Wisztorski M, Van Camp C, Desmons A, Deschamps M, Proess G, Rudlof I, Woods AS, Day R, Salzet M, Fournier I (2007) Tag-Mass: Specific Molecular Imaging of Transcriptome and Proteome by Mass Spectrometry Based on Photocleavable Tag, Proteome Res. 6(6):2057-67
  • Stauber J, El Ayed M, Wisztorski M, Day R, Fournier I, Salzet M PCR and immunoassay – MALDI mass spectrometry using Tag-Mass technology: New tools to break down quantification limits and multiplexes. Anal. Chem (2009) 81(22):9512-21
  • Gagnon H, Franck J, Wisztorski M, Day R, Fournier I, Salzet M Targeted mass spectrometry Imaging: Specific Targeting Mass Spectrometry imaging technologies from history to perspective. Progress in Histopathology and Cytochemistry (2012) 47(3):133-74


  • Fournier I, Salzet M, ISA-MS et PCR-MS, US divisionnaire de la WO 2007/000669 A2, PCT, 2009
  • Fournier I, Salzet M, Antibodies with Conjugates with Linkers Cleavable by Photodissociation, US divisionnaire de la WO 2007/000669 A2, PCT, 2009
  • Fournier I, Lemaire R, Dechamps M, Tabet JC, Salzet M, Use of Conjugates with Linkers Cleavable by Photodissociation of Fragmentation for Mass, WO 2007/000669 A2, 2007, Delivred in EU & US

SNOOP-I : non-invasive and real-time analysis tool for the detection of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Supports : I-Site, Université de Lille, SATT Nord, Région Hauts de France
: Comprehensive Care Center Oscar Lambret, OCR

          snoop 2

SNOOP-I aims to develop a new non-invasive and real-time analysis tool for the detection of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to enable early diagnosis of cancer and follow-up of patients during treatment. SNOOP-I is a project to develop a new non-invasive and real-time analysis tool for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to enable early diagnosis of cancer and follow-up of patients during treatment. Indeed, patient survival is closely correlated with the ability to diagnose the disease early at a stage where it remains localized. Being able to perform an early diagnosis, in a totally non-invasive way in real-time and on a large scale is therefore an important societal issue. Various studies demonstrate the ability of VOCs released by the body in the breath, urine, feces or skin to provide highly specific and sensitive molecular signatures for cancer detection. Here we want to develop an electronic dog based on robustness, extreme sensitivity (up to ppt) and the ability to detect complex molecular signatures of mass spectrometry to obtain a real-time and large-scale analysis system ladder. The project will be organized around the development and optimization of the new instrument, then the creation of banks and the identification of the VOCs associated with cancers. Finally, the system will be tested for the analysis of VOCs originating from samples of patients, firstly canines then human.